This article thinks about the presence of local leaders in the highland regions of Southern Anatolia and the Taurus mountains, capable of ruling over wide territories in the context of the Mithridatic War. They did not hesitate for it to make deals and collaborate with the pirates in order to prosper, as well as to consolidate and to increase their hegemony. Nevertheless, some of them, such as Antipater of Derbe, Tarcondimotus of Hierapolis/ Kastabala or the tyrants of Olba, were recognized ofﬁcially by Rome in spite of their link with the pirates. We would add to them Antiochus I of Commagene and the Polemonid M. Antonio Polemo, dynast and high-priest of Olba, who also played a basic role in the control of these territories, giving a great service to Rome. Keywords: war, piracy, tyrannoi, Southern Anatolia.
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